RESEARCH PAPER
Compulsory military service as a social integrator
Ronen Itsik 1  
 
More details
Hide details
1
Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ronen Itsik   

Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, ul. Wieniawskiego 1, 61-712, Poznan, Poland
Submission date: 2020-04-30
Final revision date: 2020-06-20
Acceptance date: 2020-06-26
Online publication date: 2020-09-04
Publication date: 2020-09-30
 
Security and Defence Quarterly 2020;30(3):65–80
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Compulsory military service has become very rare over the last 30 years in the western world. In the past, most countries considered military service as a socialisation platform, given the fact that most of the population was recruited and military units were a "meeting point" for different cultures – because of that the service then was functional as a social integrator. The current research studied changes in social attitude during compulsory military service in Israel, where the society is considered to be essentially divided around ethnical and national issues. This study is based on an analysis of the attitudes of 3200 internet questionnaire participants via social networks in Israel, followed by a U-test of the collected data. Half of the participants were high-school students (average age 17) and half of them discharged soldiers (average age 23). Analysis of the results reveals significant evidence: discharged soldiers tend to be more tolerant then high-school students with regard to other cultures and ethnic origins. A discharged IDF soldier is less afraid of security threats and considers budget prioritisation towards social welfare to be more important than security challenges. These findings show that compulsory military service can still be effective as a social integrator, even in the post-modern world where countries are dealing with migration issues and ethno-national tensions.
 
REFERENCES (46)
1.
Arian, A. (2009) A Portrait of Israeli Jews. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Democracy. Available at: https://en.idi.org.il/media/54... (Accessed: 10 February 2020).
 
2.
Barkai, Z. (2007) The influence of army duty on fashioning political attitudes. Doctoral thesis. Haifa University, School of Political Sciences.
 
3.
Ben-Dor, G. and Lewin, E. (2017) Israel’s national resilience. Haifa: Center for National Security Studies.
 
4.
Ben-Dor, G., Lewin, A. and Canetti, D. (2012) The social component of national strength. Haifa: Center for National Security Studies.
 
5.
Bar-Tal, D. and Staub, E. (1997) Patriotism in the life of individuals and nations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
 
6.
Ben-Eliezer, U. (2004) ‘Post-modern Armies and the Question of Peace and War: The Israeli defense forces in the new times’. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 36(1), pp. 49–70. doi: 10.1017/S0020743804361039.
 
7.
Ben-Eliezer, U. (2012) Israel’s New Wars. Tel-Aviv: Haim Rubin Publications.
 
8.
Ben-Eliezer, U. and Al-Haj, M. (2006) In the name of defense. Haifa: Pardes.
 
9.
Colonimus, N. and Bar-Tal, D. (2011) ‘The concept of conflict ethos and military duty among choice units’. The Public Space. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University.
 
10.
Elran, M. (2006) ‘National strength – effects of the 2nd intifada on the Israeli society’. Jaffe Center for Strategic Research. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University.
 
11.
Gabizon, R. (2003) Thoughts on the meaning and implication of Jewish in the term a Jewish and democratic state. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute of Democracy.
 
12.
Gabizon, R. and Abu-Riya, A. (1999) The Jewish-Arab rift in Israel. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute of Democracy.
 
13.
Hacohen, G. (2014) What is national in national security? Tel-Aviv: Broadcasted University.
 
14.
Hajjar, R. M. (2014) ‘Emergent Postmodern US Military Culture’, Armed Forces and Society, 40(1), pp. 118–145. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12465261.
 
15.
Harel, A. (2013) Every Hebrew mother should know: The image of the new IDF. Modeen: Kinneret, Zmora-Bitan.
 
16.
Harman, T., Heller, A., Atmor, N. and Level, Y. (2013) The Israel Democracy Index. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute of Democracy.
 
17.
Itsik, R. (2019) Israel’s defense ethos – military service as a turning point. Doctoral thesis. Adam Mickiewicz University, Department of Sociology.
 
18.
Itsik, R. (2013) Reserve army duty in Israel in view of individualism. MA thesis. Haifa University, School of Political Sciences.
 
19.
Kopka, R. (2019) ‘Social Structure Determinants of Polish Military Manpower’, Security and Defence Quarterly, 26(4), pp. 67–97. doi: 10.35467/sdq/109649.
 
20.
Krebs, R. R. (2009) ‘The citizen-soldier tradition in the united states: Has its demise been greatly exaggerated?’, Armed Forces and Society, 36(1), pp. 153–174. doi: 10.1177/0095327X09337370.
 
21.
Levy, Y. (2009) ‘From republican to market control over the armed forces: A conceptual framework’, Polity, 41(1), pp. 1–29. doi: 10.1057/pol.2008.19.
 
22.
Levy, Y. (2012) ‘A revised model of civilian control of the military: The interaction between the republican exchange and the control exchange’, Armed Forces and Society, 38(4), pp. 529–556. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12439384.
 
23.
Levy, Y. (2014) ‘The Theocratization of the Israeli Military’, Armed Forces and Society, 40(2), pp. 269–294. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12466071.
 
24.
Lutwak, A. (2002) The strategy of war and peace. Tel-Aviv: Ma’arakhot.
 
25.
Lewin, E. (2013) Ethos clash in Israeli society. London: Lexington Books.
 
26.
Moskos, C. W. and Segal, D. (2000) The Postmodern Military. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 
27.
Moskos, C. W. (2002) ‘Reviving the citizen-soldier’. National Affairs, 147, pp. 77–85. Available at: https://nationalaffairs.com/pu... (Accessed 2 August 2020).
 
28.
Nevo, B. and Shor, Y. (2001) ‘Human dignity in the IDF’. Military and Society Project. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Democracy.
 
29.
Nevo, B., Shor, Y. (2002) ‘Compulsory service in the IDF’. Military and Society Project. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Democracy.
 
30.
Popper, M. (1998) ‘The Israeli defense forces as a socializing agent’, in Bar-Tal Jacobson, D. and Klieman, A. (eds) Security Concerns: Insights from the Israeli Experience. Stamford CT: JAI, pp. 167–180.
 
31.
Popper, M. (2009) ‘The IDF and the Market Society – Aspects for an in-depth Examination’, Ma’arakhot, 426(5), pp. 36–41.
 
32.
Rennick, J. B. (2013) ‘Canadian Values and Military Operations in the Twenty-First Century’, Armed Forces and Society, 39(3), pp. 511-530. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12441326.
 
33.
Røislien, H. E. (2013) ‘Religion and military conscription: The case of the Israel defense forces (IDF)’, Armed Forces and Society, 39(2), pp. 213-232. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12449429.
 
34.
Samia, Y. (2008) From individuals to units. Tel-Aviv: Israel Ministry of Defense.
 
35.
Shiftan, D. (2007) ‘Strategic challenges for Israel towards is 60th anniversary’. The Reader for the Course: Israel’s National Security. Tel-Aviv University.
 
36.
Shelah, O. (2015) The courage to win. Tel-Aviv: Miskal.
 
37.
Stern, A. (2009) The beret trek: navigation at eye level. Tel-Aviv: Miskal.
 
38.
Smooha, S. (1992) ‘Arabs and Jews in Israel. Change and continuity In mutual tolerance’. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Democracy.
 
39.
Tamari, D. (2012) The armed nation. Tel-Aviv: Ma’arakhot.
 
40.
Tamir, Y. (1998) ‘Two concepts of multi-culturalism’, in Mautner, M. and Sagi, A. (eds) Multi-Culturalism in a democratic and Jewish State. Tel-Aviv: Ramot Edition.
 
41.
Tishler, A. and Hadad, S. (2011) Compulsory army service versus a professional army – the effect of the manner of recruitment, Israel’s Military Strength. Caesarea: The Annual Caesarea Forum.
 
42.
Urych, I. (2017) ‘Students of Military Classes Concerning Selected Aspects of Poland’s National Security. An Empirical Study’, Security and Defence Quarterly, 17(4), pp. 21–47. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0011.7842.
 
43.
Vest, B. M. (2013) ‘Citizen, Soldier, or Citizen-Soldier? Negotiating Identity in the US National Guard’, Armed Forces and Society, 39(4), pp. 602-627. doi: 10.1177/0095327X12457725.
 
44.
Yaalon, M. (2008) A long-short Way. Tel-Aviv: Miskal.
 
45.
Yair, G. (2011) The code of Israelism: The ten commandments of the 2000’s. Jerusalem: Keter.
 
46.
Zigdon, Y. (2008) Deliberation in the theory of establishing power. Tel-Aviv: Ma’arakhot.
 
eISSN:2544-994X
ISSN:2300-8741