LIMITATIONS IN THE AIRSPACE SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES IN CONNECTION WITH SPACE ACTIVITY
 
More details
Hide details
1
Akademia Sztuki Wojennej w Warszawie
 
Security and Defence Quarterly 2018;20(3):42–56
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
The launch of the Soviet Sputnik in 1957 resulted in the emergence of two legal concepts concerning spacefl ight. The first of them concerned harmless passage through airspace subjected to the sovereignty of states, the second - recognition that at the height of the trajectory of a passage, space is no longer subject to the sovereignty of states (res omnium communis). In both cases, we are dealing with limiting the sovereignty of states. These issues have not been resolved to this day. The practice of spacefl ight has confirmed the freedom of spaceflight, although it has not resolved the issue of the upper limit of airspace. It is worth emphasising, however, that the decisive factor for the development of space law was the customary law that arose in 1957, because states did not protest and tacitly accepted the principle of a harmless flight.
 
REFERENCES (28)
1.
Apfel, N.H., 1988. Space law. New York.
 
2.
Berezowski, C., 1957. Zagadnienia zwierzchnictwa terytorialnego. Warsaw.
 
3.
Berezowski, C., 1964. Międzynarodowe prawo lotnicze. Warsaw.
 
4.
Buzdugan, M., 2007. Developing „Rules of the road” for space, issues of Space Traffi c Management. Paper presented to Makau conference, 16–21 Apr 2007.
 
5.
Brisibe, T.C., 2004. State sovereignty and aeronautical public correspondence by satellite. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 69 (4), 649–687.
 
6.
Cheng, B., 1980. Th e legal regime of airspace and outer space: the boundary problem. Functionalism versus spatialism. Th e major premises. AASL: Annals of Air and Space Law, 5, 323–361.
 
7.
Durys, P. and Jasiński, F., 1999. Wybór aktów prawnych do nauki międzynarodowego prawa lotniczego i kosmicznego, Warsaw.
 
8.
Journal of Laws 1968, no14, c. 82. McDougal, G., Lasswell, H. and Vlasiĉ, I.A., 2007. Law and public order in space. Th e nationality of spacecraft and promotion of optimum order in space, vol. II, McGill, Montreal.
 
9.
Fixel, R.W., 1948. Th e law of aviation, Charlottesville.
 
10.
Górbiel, A., 1985. Międzynarodowe prawo kosmiczne, Warsaw.
 
11.
Hermida, J., 2004. Legal basis for a national space legislation, Dordrecht.
 
12.
Homburg, R., 1965. Droit de l’espace. Revue Générale de l`Air et le l`Espace, (4), 393–399.
 
13.
Johnson, D.H.N., 1974. Rights in air space. In I.A. Vlasiĉ (ed), Montreal.
 
14.
Jasentuliyana, N., 1997. Space law: the newest branch of international law. AASL, 22 (1), 345–346.
 
15.
Kayser, V., 1994. From the sky to the stars: air lawyers and space lawyers; perspectives on future legal issues and legal teaching. AASL, 20 (1), 367–376.
 
16.
Kayser, V., 1994. Aux confi ns de l`aire et de l`espace d`accursius a l`avion spatial. AASL, 19 (2), 497.
 
17.
Kuhn, A.K., 1920. International aerial navigation and the peace conference. AJIL: American Journal of International Law, (2), 369–388.
 
18.
Markoff , M.G., 1969. La delimitation de l`espace extra-atmosphériqu. Revue Générale del`Air de l`Espace, (4), 9–39.
 
19.
McDougal, G., Lasswell, H. and Vlasiĉ, I.A., 2007. Law and public order in space. Th e nationality of spacecraft and promotion of optimum order in space, vol. II. McGill, Montreal.
 
20.
Martin, P.M., 1968. New frontier in the law of the air. In E. McWhinney, A. Bradley (eds), Leiden.
 
21.
Reinhardt, D.N., 2007. Th e vertical limit of state sovereignty. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, (72), 66–132, 136–137.
 
22.
Resolution no. 18/1962, accepted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1963, 1999. In P. Durys and F. Jasiński (eds), Wybór aktów prawnych do nauki międzynarodowego prawa lotniczego i kosmicznego, Warsaw.
 
23.
Salin, P.A., 2001. Th e new global governance dialogue on international communications and outer space. In Proceeding of the forty-fourth colloquium on the law of outer space, International Institute of Space Law of the International Astronautical Federation, 1–5 Oct 2001, Toulouse, France.
 
24.
Shaw, M.N., 2000. Prawo międzynarodowe. Warsaw.
 
25.
Shrewsbury, M.S.M., 2003. September 11 th and the Single European Sky: developing concepts of airspace sovereignty. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, (68), 115–160.
 
26.
Wassenbergh, H.A., 1978. Reality and value in air and space law. AASL. (3), 346–354.
 
27.
Żylicz, M., 1960. Podstawowe elementy prawa aeronautycznego (zagadnienia wybrane). Zeszyty Prawnicze, (1), 189–190.
 
28.
Miles, R. and Th ränhardt, D., 1995. Migration and European Integration: Th e Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, New Jersey.
 
eISSN:2544-994X
ISSN:2300-8741