Participation of V4 countries in African peacekeeping missions
More details
Hide details
Doctoral School for Safety and Security Sciences, Óbudai University, Hungary
Online publication date: 2020-06-03
Submission date: 2020-01-02
Final revision date: 2020-04-03
Acceptance date: 2020-04-03
Security and Defence Quarterly 2020;29(2):7–19
The article explores the peacekeeping activities of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the characteristics of their activities on the African continent. The paper examines the African peacekeeping missions carried out by Visegrád countries. The study uses comparative scientific literature and analysis of statements released by these governments and other papers and studies related to the African peacekeeping missions. In addition, I used my own experience from my previous African peacekeeping/peace support missions, and the lessons learned from other African operations published in my previous book about Hungarian peacekeeping missions. In summary, of the Visegrád states with differing levels of training and equipment, Poland was the most active in peace operations in Africa and in the lead, followed by the Czech Republic and Hungary, while Slovakia was the least involved in the African continent. This trend is, moreover, in line with the involvement of the above countries in Africa to date. Although these states cooperate in several areas, this is not the case for African peace operations, although cooperation in this area would be important. The research examines the background to the activities of the V4 countries in peace operations in Africa. The study is particularly important in view of the fact that, for a number of reasons (migration, terrorism), the V4 countries are preparing for greater engagement in Africa, one area of which is peace-support operations.
Berg, P. (2009) ‘EUFOR Tchad/RCA: The EU serving French interest’, in Asseburg, M. and Kempin, R. (eds) The EU as a Strategic Actor in the Realm of Security and Defence. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP).
Besenyő, J. (2013) ‘A Magyar Honvédség részvétele az ENSZ békeműveleteiben’, in Szenes, Z. (ed) Válságkezelés és Békefenntartás az ENSZ-ben. Budapest: Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, pp. 58–74, Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2019).
Besenyő, J. (2016) Dárfúr a lángoló tartomány. Az Afrikai Unió szudáni missziójának története. Pécs: Publikon Kiadó.
Besenyő, J. (2019) Participation of Hungary in African Operations between 1989-2019. Budapest: Óbudai University.
Čejka, M., Daniel, J. and Lubin, M. (2018) ‘The Middle East and the Maghreb in the Czech Foreign Policy: Continuity in the face of regional turmoil’, in Kizeková, A. et al. (eds) Czech Foreign Policy in 2017: Analysis. Prague: Institute of International Relations, pp. 183–203.
Chivvis, C.S., Cohen, R.S., Frederick, B., Hamilton, D.S., Larrabee, S. and Lin, B. (2017) NATO’s Northeastern Flank - Emerging Opportunities for Engagement. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.
Chmiel, O. J. (2018) The Engagement of Visegrád Countries in EU-Africa Relations, Bonn: German Development Institute. Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2019).
Dangerfield, M. (2011a) ‘Visegrád Group Cooperation and “Europeanisation” of New EU Member States’, in Góra, M. and Zielińska, K. (eds) Democracy, State and Society: European Integration in Central and Eastern Europe. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press, pp. 293–310.
Dangerfield, M. (2011b) ‘The contribution of the Visegrád Group to the European Union’s ’Eastern’ Policy: Rhetoric or reality?’, in Gower, J. and Timmins, G. (eds) The European Union, Russia and the Shared Neighbourhood. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 51–72.
Daniel, J. and Wittichová, M. (2016) Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Czech Republic. Available at: http://www.providingforpeaceke... (Accessed: 18 July 2019).
Di Mauro, D., Krotz, U. and Wright, K. (2017) EU’s Global Engagement: A Database of CSDP Military Operations and Civilian Missions Worldwide. Florence: European University Institute.
Dunay, P. (2005) ‘Peace Operation and Humanitarian Assistance: The Contribution of Hungary’, in Edmunds, T. and Malešič, M (eds) Defence Transformation in Europe: Evolving Military Roles. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 47–55.
Dunay, P. (2010) ‘The changing political geography of Europe after EU and NATO enlargements’, in Tardy, T. (ed.), European Security in a Global Context: Internal and External Dynamics. Oxon: Taylor & Francis, pp. 74–92.
European Union External Action no date. Military and civilian missions and operations. Available at: (Accessed: 28 September 2019).
Fahron - Hussey, C. (2018) Military Crisis Management Operations by NATO and the EU: The Decision-Making Process. Wiesbaden: Springer.
Fitzmaurice, J., (1998) Politics and Government in the Visegrád Countries: Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Grevi, G., Helly, D. and Keohane, D. (2009) European Security and Defence Policy The first 10 years (1999–2009). Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies.
Hungarian Government Resolution about Africa strategy 1177/2019. Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2019).
International Institute for Strategic Studies (2018) The Military Balance 2018. London: Routledge.
Jandová, D. (2016) ‘Military involvement of Visegrád four in foreign missions’, European Security Journal. Available at: (Accessed: 18 July 2019).
Jarocki, M. (2019) The Visegrád Group’s role in the European Security Systems. Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2019).
Jowett P. S. (2019) The Biafran Army 1967–70. Build-up and downfall of the secessionist military. Warwick: Helion & Company Limited.
Konda, N. and Smura, T. (eds) (2018) Balance Sheet of U.S. Allies and Implication for Alliance Policy. Warsaw: Casimir Pulaski Foundation/The Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
Kríž, Z. and Urbanovska, J. (2013) ‘Slovakia in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trapped between the Logic of Consequences and Appropriateness’, Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 26, pp. 371–392.
Krupa, J. (2019) Visegrád Four Defense Cooperation: Years of Missed Opportunities. Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2019).
Lorenz. W. (2015) ‘Development of Polish crisi management tools’, in Goda, S. (ed.) In search for greater V4 engagement in international crisis management. Bratislava: Research Center of the Slovak Foreign Policy Association (RC SFPA), pp. 27–39.
Marusiak, J. (2019) ‘Slovak - Polish relations after 1989: Slovak perceptions’, in Marczuk, K. P. (ed.) Good Neighbourhood Treaties of Poland: Political, Security and Social Relations. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 111–128.
Michelot, M. (2018) The V4 on Defence: The Art of Disagreement. Available at: https://www.europeanleadership... (Accessed: 15 July 2019).
Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic no date. Foreign Operations. Available at: (Accessed: 28 September 2019).
Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic (2013) Armed Forces of the Czech Republic - symbol of democracy and state sovereignty 1993–2012. Praha: Public Diplomacy Division.
Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic no date. History of military operations abroad. Available at: (Accessed: 19 July 2019).
Ministry of National Defence Republic of Poland no date. Missions. Available at: (Accessed: 28 September 2019).
Nagy, B., Rady, M., Szende, K. and Vadas, A. (2016) Medieval Buda in Context. Leiden, Boston: BRILL.
Németh, B. (2018) ‘Militarisation of cooperation against mass migration – the Central European Defence Cooperation (CEDC)’, Defense & Security Analysis, 34 (1), pp. 16–34.
Novosseloff, A. (2012) United Nations - European Union cooperation in the field of peacekeeping: Challenges and prospects. GGI Analysis Paper, 4. Brussels: Global Governance Institute.
Pietrzak, P. (2012) ‘Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland in International Operations – Legal Grounds, Strategic Considerations, and Practical Implementation’, in Lachowski, Z. (ed.), Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin. Warsaw: National Security Bureau (Poland) National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, pp. 69–85.
Poland Perspectives no date. Out-of-area missions [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 28 September 2019).
Polish Peacekeeping Veterans Association of the United Nations no date. Polish peacekeeping. Available at: (Accessed: 28 September 2019).
Polus, A. (2016) ‘Polish Sub Saharan African economic and political relations after 1989’, Politeja, 42(3), pp. 93–110. Available at: (Accessed: 16 January 2020).
Šiljak, D. (2019) Challenges and Opportunities for the CEFTA Countries. Available at: (Accessed: 15 July 2019).
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2018) SIPRI Yearbook 2018 - Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Szemlér, T. (2019) ‘The European Dimension: The V4 and the EU. An „Alliance within the Alliance’, in Voskressenski A. D. and Koller B. (eds) The Regional World Order: Transregionalism, Regional Integration, and Regional Projects across Europe and Asia. Lanham: Lexinton Books, pp. 77–86.
Szenes, Z. (2015) Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Hungary. Available at: http://www.providingforpeaceke... (Accessed: 20 July 2019).
Tarnogórski, R. (2012) Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Poland. Available at: http://www.providingforpeaceke... (Accessed: 20 July 2019).
United Nations Peacekeeping no date, Troop and Police contributors. Available at: (Accessed: 16 August 2019).